Diverse T and B cell repertoires play an important role in mounting effective immune responses against a wide range of pathogens and malignant cells. The number of unique T and B cell clones is characterized by T and B cell receptors (TCRs and BCRs), respectively. Although receptor sequences are generated probabilistically by recombination processes, clinical studies found a high degree of sharing of TCRs and BCRs among different individuals. In this work, we formulate a mathematical and statistical framework to quantify receptor distributions. We define information theoretic metrics for comparing the frequency of sampled sequences observed across different individuals. Using synthetic and empirical TCR amino acid sequence data, we perform simulations to compare theoretical predictions of this clonal commonality across individuals with corresponding observations. Thus, we quantify the concept of \"publicness\" or \"privateness\" of T cell and B cell clones. Our methods can also be used to study the effect of different sampling protocols on the expected commonality of clones and on the confidence levels of this overlap. We also quantify the information loss associated with grouping together certain receptor sequences, as is done in spectratyping.
Cross-sector interactions have long occurred in the public delivery of goods, services, and interests. While scholars have often addressed cross-sector interactions using the dimensions of publicness (state) and privateness (market), an intersectoral framework necessitates the understanding and incorporation of nonprofitness to account for the dimensions of nonprofits along the public-private continuum. This article proposes a framework for identifying the dimensions of nonprofits in an intersectoral world and draws on relevant examples to illustrate the presence and influence of nonprofitness. The article then focuses on the future of education in the field of public administration and, in light of the proposed framework, makes and considers recommendations to help educational programs better equip students to appreciate work across sectors.
Major findings of this study are as follows. Regarding the relationships between collaboration and transfer effectiveness, cooperative R&D was perceived neither as an effective, nor as a major mechanism for transferring technologies in Japan, and to a lesser degree, in the United States. The two countries were different rather than similar in the formation effect of task and institutional properties. Government laboratories in the United States were likely to form collaboration irrespective of research missions, whereas only basic research mission was positive in Japan. Red tape had a recognizable positive effect in Japan, whereas it had a discouraging one in the United States. Resource privateness was more influential than resource publicness as much in Japan as in the United States. Government parenthood was positive in Japan but results were not firm in the United States. Two countries were very similar in the effect of GICR&D contingencies. Mission diversity, commercial project orientation, and organizational importance of resource acquisition were positive in both countries, with an exception of Japan being not significant in the importance of resource acquisition. Commercial project orientation was the most influential factor in the United States, and government parenthood was the most influential one in Japan. 59ce067264